Conversations surrounding diversity and inclusion—or, more pointedly, the lack thereof—have become a regular occurrence in the ad industry. Unfortunately, less attention is paid to the monumental creative accomplishments made by people of color throughout the discipline’s history. The work they’ve produced over the past 50-plus years has played a vital role in defining advertising as we know it today, even if most of their names are not as well-known as those of other industry icons.
“We have these same conversations [around diversity in advertising], and there seems to be no traction, but those conversations are easy to sell,” said VCU Brandcenter executive director and former JWT Atlanta CCO Vann Graves. “Whereas where there are successes, they’re rarely celebrated.”
As the first entry in an ongoing series, Adweek reached out to a group of black creatives, young and seasoned alike, to choose classic campaigns co-created by men and women of color that changed the advertising landscape, influencing both contemporaries and generations to come. The list below barely scratches the surface and is by no means comprehensive—nor could it be—but it’s a start.
We hope it also makes a larger point: The ad industry should not limit celebrations of work produced by African-Americans to the 28 days of Black History Month each year.
Coca-Cola, “Hilltop,” McCann Worldgroup (1971)
Graves cited Coca-Cola’s timeless 1971 “Hilltop” ad as particularly influential and recalled singing the jingle in nursery school. But the song now associated with Don Draper was co-written by Billy Davis, a black singer/songwriter who penned hits for the likes of Etta James and Jackie Wilson before heading to McCann, where he became svp, music director and wrote commercial jingles featuring Ray Charles and Aretha Franklin, among many others.
“Advertisers today hope to be able to have something go viral like that,” Graves said.
“It was I think a message of peace,” he added, noting that Coca-Cola helped cover funeral costs following Martin Luther King Jr.’s assassination several years earlier. “That’s Coca-Cola making that commitment to the African-American community.”
In 1964, after Georgia elite refused to respond to invitations to an integrated dinner honoring King for winning the Nobel Peace Prize, Coca-Cola CEO J. Paul Austin threatened to move the company’s headquarters out of Atlanta in a story that ran on the front page of The New York Times. The dinner quickly sold out following his ultimatum.
In a later interview with NPR, former U.N. Ambassador Andrew Young, who attended the dinner, quoted Austin as saying, “Coca-Cola cannot stay in a city that’s going to have this kind of reaction and not honor a Nobel Peace Prize winner.”
“When I think about [Hilltop], it’s not a spot, it’s a point in time and a commitment to community that you don’t see [from] brands,” Graves said. “That’s why it means more because it’s a brand that stood for something, that created a piece of creative that stood for something, that an African-American was a key part of that story, which adds to the legitimacy of it.”
Following the popularity of the “Hilltop” ad, the South African government asked to use a version of the spot without black actors. Coca-Cola refused and later sold its assets in the country.
Pillsbury, “Say Hello to Poppin’ Fresh Dough,” Leo Burnett Chicago (1972)
Carol H. Williams was among the original wave of African-Americans to join the Chicago agency scene, and her creative breakthrough came via the below campaign for the Pillsbury brand. Copywriter Rudy Perz first developed Poppin’ Fresh, who was designed to promote the company’s line of refrigerated products, but Williams created the signature giggle that humanized a character that appeared in more than four decades’ worth of ads.
Secret, “Strong Enough for a Man, but Made for a Woman,” Leo Burnett Chicago (1982)
Williams became the second black woman and very first black female creative inducted into the Advertising Hall of Fame in 2017, nearly 50 years after she got her first agency job as a copywriter at Leo Burnett Chicago.
Perhaps even more significant was Williams’ development of the Secret tagline, “Strong enough for a man, but made for a woman,” which boosted sales of the P&G antiperspirant and still appears in various forms today. This broadcast spot from 1982 is particularly notable for being one of two Secret ads to feature an all-black cast.
Band-Aid, “I Am Stuck on Band-Aid,” Y&R (1975)
Barry Manilow’s biggest hit may be “Copacabana,” but he also penned some of the longest-running commercial jingles in history, including this classic for the J&J bandage behemoth.
Among his collaborators on the campaign was African-American Y&R art director Harry Webber, who spent more than three decades in the ad industry producing work for such brands as Ford, P&G, Heinz and Chase.
Derek Walker, the founder of South Carolina’s brown and browner advertising who used his Twitter feed to highlight talent of color every day of this year’s Black History Month, said Webber “played a huge part” in developing both the Band-Aid work and “The Mind Is a Terrible Thing to Waste,” the iconic PSA series created by Y&R in collaboration with the Ad Council to promote the United Negro College Fund in 1972.
The Band-Aid campaign has spanned decades, and Y&R won a Clio award for this 1975 version.
Coca-Cola, “Coke Adds Life,” Burrell Communications (1978)
Seven years after both “Hilltop” and the founding of Chicago’s Burrell Communications, Coca-Cola turned to the multicultural agency for a “Coke Adds Life” campaign.
When asked about his earliest influences, Amusement Park chairman and CCO Jimmy Smith, who began his career at Burrell before stints at Wieden + Kennedy, BBDO, TBWA\Chiat\Day and more, immediately responded: “That Coca-Cola joint from Burrell Communications where they’re singing on the steps from 1978.”
“That’s the one that got me hyped about advertising,” added Smith. “Well, one of them.”
Converse and Sears, “Converse Makes ‘Em, but Sears Gives ‘Em Soul,” FCB (1977)
Smith also cited another late ’70s crossover promo between Sears and Converse led by fellow BBDO veteran Phil Gant. Below is a print component of the campaign, which also included a fully animated broadcast spot.
“You had to get a pair of Converse All-Stars from Sears just because of that commercial,” Smith said.
“It was one of the first things I ever wrote and produced,” said Gant, who was then a young copywriter at the agency that would become FCB. “We did Sears retail, [and] the ‘Sears gives ’em soul’ spot put me on the map at FCB.”
Gant told Adweek that “there were no African-American creatives to speak of until the civil rights movement began nudging.” He was “one of a handful hired by large agencies after the Martin Luther King Jr. killing” when shops were “hot to be seen as liberal and progressive.” The longtime copywriter and creative director added that this was “not for business reasons, mind you!”
Kentucky Fried Chicken, “We Do Chicken Right,” Mingo-Jones (1979)
In 1979, Kentucky Fried Chicken turned to Mingo-Jones, the agency co-founded by industry pioneer Caroline R. Jones, to craft campaigns targeting the African-American market.
The resulting “We Do Chicken Right” slogan proved so successful that the brand decided to run it nationally for 10 years beginning in 1981.
“While much of the national work at the time still featured primarily white models, the move to implement the slogan nationally also reflected a shift in brands becoming open to incorporating diverse casting in their national campaign work,” said Candace Queen, founder of Queen Creative Group and Blacks in Advertising.
“Over the span of that decade, KFC began to include more people of color in their casting. The adoption of the slogan at the national level also reinforced the idea that black-owned agencies in the U.S. could create work that resonated with audiences beyond the African-American market.”